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Termites are found on all continents except Antarctica. The diversity of termite species is reduced in North America and Europe (10 species known in Europe and 50 in North America), but is high in South America, in which over 400 species have been known.34 Of the 3,000 termite species currently classified, 1,000 are found in Africa, where mounds are really abundant in certain regions.

 

 

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Within China, termite species are restricted to mild tropical and subtropical habitats south of the Yangtze River.34 In Australia, all ecological groups of termites (dampwood, drywood, subterranean) are endemic to the country, with over 360 classified species.34.

Due to their soft cuticles, termites do not inhabit cool or cold habitats.36 There are three ecological groups of termites: dampwood, drywood and subterranean. Dampwood termites are found only in coniferous woods, and drywood termites are found in hardwood forests; subterranean termites reside in widely diverse regions.34 One species in the drywood category is the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), which is an invasive species in Australia.37.

 

 

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Termites are usually small, measuring between 4 to 15 millimetres (0.16 to 0.59 in) in length.34 The largest of extant termites are the queens of the species Macrotermes bellicosus, measuring up to over 10 centimetres (4 in) in length.38 Another giant termite, the extinct Gyatermes styriensis, flourished in Austria during the Miocene and had a wingspan of 76 millimetres (3.0 in) and a body length of 25 millimetres (0.98 in).39note 1. )

Most worker and soldier termites are completely blind because they do not have a set of eyes. However, some species, like Hodotermes mossambicus, have compound eyes that they use for orientation and to distinguish sunlight from moonlight.40 The alates (winged males and females) have eyes along with lateral ocelli.

Termite antennae have a number of functions like the sensing of taste, touch, odours (including pheromones), heat and vibration. The three primary segments of a termite antenna include a scape, a pedicel (typically shorter than the scape), and the flagellum (all segments beyond the scape and pedicel). The mouth parts contain a maxillae, a labium, and a set of mandibles.

Consistent with all insects, the anatomy of this termite thorax consists of 3 segments: the prothorax, the mesothorax and the metathorax. Each segment contains a set of legs. On alates, the wings are at the mesothorax and metathorax. Even the mesothorax and metathorax have well-developed exoskeletal plates; the prothorax has smaller plates. .

 

 

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Termites have a ten-segmented abdomen using 2 plates, the tergites and also the sternites. The tenth abdominal segment has a set of short cerci.45 You can find ten tergites, of which nine are broad and one is elongated. The reproductive organs are much like people in cockroaches but are somewhat more simplified. By way of instance, the intromittent organ is not present in male alates, and the sperm is either immotile or aflagellate.

 

 

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Unlike in other termites, Mastotermitidae females possess an ovipositor, a characteristic strikingly similar to that in female cockroaches.48.

The non-reproductive castes of thieves are wingless and rely solely on their six legs for locomotion. The alates fly only for a short amount of time, and therefore they also rely on their legs. The appearance of the legs is comparable in each and every caste, but the soldiers have larger and heavier legs.

 

 

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The number of tibial spurs on an individual's leg varies. Some species of termite have an arolium, found between the claws, which is present in species which climb on smooth surfaces but is absent in most termites.49.

Unlike in ants, the hind-wings and fore-wings are of equivalent length.2 Most of the time, the alates are poor stocks; their technique would be to launch themselves in the air see this here and fly in a random direction. Studies indicate that in comparison to bigger termites, smaller termites cannot fly long distances. When a termite is in flight, its wings remain in a ideal angle, and when the termite is at rest, its wings remain parallel to the body.51.

 

 

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Caste method of termites A King B Queen C Secondary queen D Tertiary queen Soccer Soldiers F Worker

Worker termites undertake the maximum labor within the colony, being responsible for foraging, food storage, and brood and nest maintenance.53 Workers are tasked with the digestion of cellulose in food and are consequently the most likely caste to be found in infested wood. The process of worker termites feeding different nestmates is known as trophallaxis.

 

 

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Some termite species do not own a true worker caste, instead relying on nymphs that perform the exact same job without differentiating as a distinct caste.53.

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